Above a certain level, an uncorrected refractive error (hyperopia = farsightedness, myopia = nearsightedness, or astigmatism) can lead to a developmental visual disorder (amblyopia). By means of the shadow test (skiascopy), we can determine the refractive power of the eyes of even the youngest children without the use of any apparatus. This allows us to assess whether an optical correction (glasses, contact lenses) is necessary so that the visual acuity can develop well.
With the skiascopy (shadow test), we can accurately measure even very complex refractive errors. We still measure even where apparative measurements fail.
For anterior segment anomalies:
For posterior segment ocular anomalies.
For nystagmus (eye tremor)